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Thursday, 12 December 2013
Taekwondo Korean pronunciation: is a Korean martial art and the national sport of South Korea. In Korean, tae means "to strike or break with foot"; kwon means "to strike or break with fist"; and do means "way", "method", or "art". Thus, taekwondo may be loosely translated as "the art of the foot and fist" or "the art of kicking and punching."
It combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise, and in some cases meditation and philosophy. In 1989, Taekwondo was claimed as the world's most popular martial art in terms of number of practitioners. Gyeorugi , a type of sparring, has been an Olympic event since 2000.
There are two branches of taekwondo development:
"Traditional taekwondo" typically refers to the martial art as it was established in the 1950s and 1960s in the South Korean military; in particular, the names and symbolism of the traditional patterns often refer to elements of Korean history. "Sport taekwondo" has evolved in the decades since then and has a somewhat different focus, especially in terms of its emphasis on speed and competition (as in Olympic sparring). Sport taekwondo is in turn subdivided into two main styles; One derives from Kukkiwon, the source of the sparring system sihap gyeorugi which is now an event at the summer Olympic Games and which is governed by the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). The other comes from the International Taekwon-Do Federation (ITF).
Although there are doctrinal and technical differences between the two main styles and among the various organizations, the art in general emphasizes kicks thrown from a mobile stance, employing the leg's greater reach and power (compared to the arm). Taekwondo training generally includes a system of blocks, kicks, punches, and open-handed strikes and may also include various take-downs or sweeps, throws, and joint locks. Some taekwondo instructors also incorporate the use of pressure points, known as jiapsul, as well as grabbing self-defense techniques borrowed from other martial arts, such as hapkido (another Korean martial art) and judo (a Japanese martial art).
See also: Korean martial arts
The oldest Korean martial art was an amalgamation of unarmed combat styles developed by the three rival Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje, where young men were trained in unarmed combat techniques to develop strength, speed, and survival skills. The most popular of these techniques was subak, with taekkyeon being the most popular of the segments of subak. Those who demonstrated strong natural aptitude were selected as trainees in the new special warrior corps, called the Hwarang. It was believed that young men with a talent for the liberal arts may have the grace to become competent warriors. These warriors were instructed in academics as well as martial arts, learning philosophy, history, a code of ethics, and equestrian sports. Their military training included an extensive weapons program involving swordsmanship and archery, both on horseback and on foot, as well as lessons in military tactics and unarmed combat using subak. Although subak was a leg-oriented art in Goguryeo, Silla's influence added hand techniques to the practice of subak.
During this time a few select Silla warriors were given training in taekkyeon by the early masters from Koguryo. These warriors then became known as the Hwarang. The Hwarang set up a military academy for the sons of royalty in Silla called Hwarang-do, which means "the way of flowering manhood." The Hwarang studied taekkyeon, history, Confucian philosophy, ethics, Buddhist morality, social skills and military tactics. The guiding principles of the Hwarang warriors were based on Won Gwang's five codes of human conduct and included loyalty, filial duty, trustworthiness, valor and justice. Taekkyeon was spread throughout Korea because the Hwarang traveled all around the peninsula to learn about the other regions and people.
In spite of Korea's rich history of ancient and traditional martial arts, Korean martial arts faded into obscurity during the Joseon Dynasty. Korean society became highly centralized under Korean Confucianism and martial arts were poorly regarded in a society whose ideals were epitomized by its scholar-kings.Formal practices of traditional martial arts such as subak and taekkyeon were reserved for sanctioned military uses. Civilian folk practice of taekkyeon persisted into the 19thth century.
During the Japanese occupation of Korea (1910-1945), all facets of ethnic Korean identity were banned or suppressed. Traditional Korean martial arts such as taekkyeon or subak were banned during this time. During the occupation, Koreans who were able to study and receive rankings in Japan were exposed to Japanese martial arts. Others were exposed to martial arts in China and Manchuria.
When the occupation ended in 1945, Korean martial arts schools (kwans) began to open in Korea under various influences. There are differing views on the origins of the arts taught in these schools. Some believe that they taught martial arts that were based primarily upon the traditional Korean martial arts taekkyon and subak, or that taekwondo was derived from native Korean martial arts with influences from neighboring countries. Still others believe that these schools taught arts that were almost entirely based upon karate.
In 1952, at the height of the Korean War, there was a martial arts exhibition in which the kwans displayed their skills. In one demonstration, Nam Tae Hi smashed 13 roof tiles with a punch. Following this demonstration, South Korean President Syngman Rhee instructed Choi Hong Hi to introduce the martial arts to the Korean army. By the mid-1950s, nine kwans had emerged. Syngman Rhee ordered that the various schools unify under a single system. The name
"taekwondo" was submitted by either Choi Hong Hi (of the Oh Do Kwan) or Song Duk Son (of the Chung Do Kwan), and was accepted on April 11, 1955. As it stands today, the nine kwans are the founders of taekwondo, though not all the kwans used the name. The Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA) was formed in 1959/1961 to facilitate the unification.
In the early 1960s, Taekwondo made its début worldwide with assignment of the original masters of taekwondo to various countries. Standardization efforts in South Korea stalled, as the kwans continued to teach differing styles. Another request from the Korean government for unification resulted in the formation of the Korea Tae Soo Do Association, which changed its name back to the Korea Taekwondo Association in 1965 following a change of leadership. The International Taekwon-Do Federation was founded in 1966, followed by World Taekwondo Federation in 1973.
Since 2000, Taekwondo has been one of only two Asian martial arts (the other being judo) that are included in the Olympic Games; it became a demonstration event starting with the 1988 games in Seoul, and became an official medal event starting with the 2000 games in Sydney. In 2010, Taekwondo was accepted as a Commonwealth Games sport.
One source has estimated that as of 2009, Taekwondo was practiced in 123 countries, with over 30 million practitioners and 3 million individuals with black belts throughout the world. The South Korean government in the same year published an estimate of 70 million practitioners in 190 countries.
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In the year 1975,Taekwondo was intriduced in India by Master Jimmy R. Jagtiani and in the year 1976 the Taekwondo Federation of India (TFI) was formed and established as a National Body of Taekwondo.
Taekwondo was introduced for the first time in the National games held at New Delhi in the year 1985.The TFI arranged special demonstration by the Korean experts in the premises of the Prime Minister, the then Rajiv Gandhi, witnessed the demonstration, he was so impressed and promises to extend possible help to TFI, Resulting the recognition of the Taekwondo federation of India in 1988 by the department of youth affairs and sports, government of India with authority to have its corresponding unit in all states and union territories of India and also the National Institute of Sports (NIS) extended the benefits of scholarship to the meritorious sport persons of Taekwondo.The Sports Authority of India (SAI) adopted Taekwondo in the syllabus for coaching instructor and the Railway Department extended concession to the Taekwondo players participating in the national and state Taekwondo championship.
It is our pride that present Taekwondo Federation of India has its affiliated members association in 26 states/union territories and besides Services Sports Control Board(S.S.C.B.), Army Sports Control Board(A.S.C.B.), Central Industrial Security Force(CISF) and Taekwondo Academy of India(TAI). The Taekwondo Academy of India assigned to look after the technical aspects in respect to Taekwondo philosophy, development of techniques, Dan promotion, degree, National refree etc. as per the Kukkiwon, the World Taekwondo Headquarter, Korea.
Taekwondo Federations of India have more than 1.5 lakh enthusiasts Taekwondo practicing at present.
T.F.I organized 29 national official championships, 25 state level official championships and 3 international Taekwondo championships in the past successfully.Grand Master Jimmy R. Jagtiani(General Secretary T.F.I) Founder of Taekwondo in India and Father of Taekwondo in India(Hall of Fame,USA)
Gunnun Sogi or Ahp sogi is used to approach or retreat in combat and poomsae. Feet should be maintained shoulder width apart except when stepping, where the leading foot moves outwards marginally. To maintain a solid base, each step should put about a shoulder width between feet, and the stance should be a shoulder width-and-a-half long. When stopping in the middle of a step, the back foot should be inclined outwards slightly to aid balance.
Niunja Sogi (Back Stance: Dwi-gibi Sogi) is a standard fight stance used in Taekwondo to prepare for kicking. The body is turned to present only the side to the opponent and the legs are split one and a half shoulder widths apart. The front foot points directly forwards while the back leg is turned out just under 90 degrees. The feet are lined up along the heels. To make sure you have the L-stance properly aligned, stand with your feet together, turn out the toes and step the back foot directly backwards into the stance. 70% of the weight should be on the back leg which means the front leg can be engaged in quick kicking and it will not unbalance the practitioner if swept.
Naranhi Sogi is a neutral stance from where a variety of Taekwondo kicks and punches may be thrown. The feet are both pointed forward and placed shoulder width apart. Arms are lightly bent with the clenched fist just under the navel and the muscles of the body should be lightly relaxed, ready to spring into action at any moment. This position is also often referred to as Ready Stance or Chumbi sogi.
Rear Foot Stance
Dwit Bal Sogi or Poom sogi is sometimes known as Cat Stance or Tiger Stance in Taekwondo. It is like the L-Stance but much tighter, and the feet are slightly over head width apart. Again most of the weight is placed on the back foot(90/10), leaving the front leg ready to kick.
Annun Sogi or Joo-choom sogi is a low stance used in Taekwondo and several other martial arts as a neutral position, which also enables an individual to practice punching. It is known as the 'horse-stance'.
feet are placed wide, around two shoulder widths apart and the knees are deeply bent until the hamstrings lie parallel with the floor. The back is kept straight. Arms are bent with closed, upturned fists held at the hips. As each punch is directed forward, the fist swivels 180 degrees down to a natural position before impact, turning back up again as it is retracted to the sides.
This is a very arduous position for the legs and lower back. While punches are being trained, other parts of the body are receiving a workout. As a student progresses, his hips will begin to open up and he will be able to achieve an even lower stance. Tests of martial endurance are often based around maintaining this position for protracted periods, holding other objects on outstretched arms or even balancing them on the head.
Kyorugi joonbi is a simple stance which is similar to back stance, but with the practitioners weight center to allow for kicking with either front or back foot. It largely resembles the fighting stance a boxer will take.
Taekwondo hand strikes are performed as a close distance alternative to kicks. They are executed in a number of ways - from standing, jumping, spinning and rushing forwards. Hand strikes make up fast combinations of strikes which can leave an opponent stunned and unable to defend himself. Taekwondo hand strikes can be separated into two distinct styles:
Various surfaces of the hand may be engaged as the striking surface depending on which area of the opponents body which is being targeted. This leads to a large array of hand positions.
Forefist - A closed fist may be jabbed out directly to strike with the forefist knuckles. This is a suitable position for general punches to soft areas of the body. Without protection, it is inadvisable to strike the bony face as fingers are likely to get broken on the hard temple and jaw bones.
Hammer fist - A closed fist may be brought down in a hammering motion to strike with the underneath. Such a strike can obliterate an opponent's nose, making it near impossible for him to retaliate.
Backfist - A Son Deung clenched hand is swung backwards into the face of an opponent. The back of the hand makes contact and the momentum garnered in the swing makes this a powerful strike. Spinning backfists are a knockout punch and banned in most Taekwondo competitions.
Knife Hand - 'Sonkal' is the Taekwondo name for a move similar to the 'Karate Chop', i.e. where an open hand is hammered down to make impact with the underside. A Ridge Hand is the opposite, where the top of the open hand strikes. These are commonly made to the side of the neck.
Fingertips - Jumeok can be used to strike vulnerable areas of the body such as pressure points. Four finger strikes engaging the tips of the outstretched hand (known as Spear hand) can be made to vital points in the neck.
Thumb - Eomji is a fist with the thumb protruding over the top. This is a formidable weapon in pressure point striking. Vulnerable areas can be targeted all over the body such as the sternum, the spaces in between the ribs and other nerve clusters.
Palm Heel - a classic self-defence strike where the hand is pulled back to engage the base of the palm in an upwards thrusting strike. This is particularly dangerous if applied to the base of the nose or chin and can result in death. Obviously banned in competition Taekwondo.
Elbow Strike (palgup chigi)- Forearm is folded inwards towards the body and the strike is delivered with the outside of the forearm or elbow.
Four-knuckle strike - This is a fist shape particular to the Asian martial arts. Instead of closing the fist completely, the fingers are held out and only the knuckles are bent, thereby presenting the upper set of knuckles as the striking surface. This fist is used for breaking boards as the smaller surface area concentrates the punches power. In self-defence, it may be used to purposefully break an attacker's jaw.
Eagle strike - In this strike, the fingers all touch together, and the hand is pointed down, exposing the top of the wrist,which is then swung upward to strike the underside of the jaw. If done properly, this strike can easily fracture the jawbone, and is usually banned from competitions due to the extreme danger. If done improperly, however, the practitioner may well break his wrist.
Tiger Claw - A strike using the space between the index finger and thumb. Fingers are made rigid, and the attack is usually directed towards the neck/trachea. Serves as a way to incapacitate an opponent for a few seconds.
Pincer Hand - A strike which uses thumb and forefinger to strike opponent's throat. In this technique a fist is closed except thumb and forefinger which are fully extended outwards.
Scissor Finger - A fist in which forefinger and middle finger is extended out as if to dig someone's eye. Similar to Pincer hand except that the forefinger and middle finger is extended outwards.
Chestnut Fist - Similar to normal fist except that first three knuckles are pushed outward slightly with thumb.
Front Snap Kick : This is a very linear kick. The practitioner raises the knee to the waist, pulls the toes back and quickly extends the foot at the target. It is also known as the snap kick. The front kick is one of the first kicks learned in TKD; if mastered it can become one of the most powerful. This technique is more meant to be used to push the attacker away, but can injure.
Side Thrusting Kick : A very powerful kick, first the practitioner simultaneously raises the knee and rotates the body 90 degrees, while doing that they extend their leg. In WTF style taekwondo, this technique should strike with the outside edge of the foot, though using the heel may provide more force if used in sparring.
Roundhouse Kick Turning Kick or Round Kick : The practitioner raises the knee, turns the hips, pivots on the non-kicking foot, and snaps the kick horizontally into the target at an 80 to 90-degree angle, either with the instep or with the ball of the foot (in the latter case, with the toes pulled back out of the way as in a front kick). The latter technique requires a great deal of flexibility in the heel.
Back kick/horse kick : Here the practitioner turns the body away from the target and pushes the back leg straight toward the target, hitting it with the heel while watching over the shoulder. The turning motion helps to give this kick a lot of power. Without proper care, you can "spin out" and lose your balance from using this attack.
Reverse Side Kick A.K.A. Spinning Side Kick : Similar to the back kick, here the body turns further, allowing the heel to hit the target with the foot pointing to the side as in a regular side kick, instead of more downward as in a true back kick.
Hook Kick : A less popular kick traditionally, it has found increasing favor in modern competitions. The practitioner raises the knee in a fashion similar to the roundhouse kick, then extends the foot outward then snaps it around in a dorsal arc, with the heel as the intended striking weapon.
Axe Kick/Downward kick : Another kick that has increased in popularity due to sparring competitions. The leg is raised usually from the outside of the body like an outside crescent kick. then the leg is pulled down with the heel pointed downward. It is typically targeted toward the head, shoulder, or chest and requires significant flexibility to employ effectively. This kick is best used against the collar bone, which can readily break from this attack. the setup in the initial raise of the kick can also be done from the inside, or middle (straight up and down.)
Crescent Kick : There are two variations of this kick: the outer crescent and the inner crescent. In the outer, the practitioner raises the extended leg as high as possible, and slightly up across the body, (a bit across the centerline of the body), then sweeping outward to the side, in a circular movement. In the inner, the motions are the same but the direction of the kick changes, this time originating from the outside of the body, heading towards the inside, or centerline of the body. These kicks are also called "Inside Kick" and "Outside Kick" at some taekwondo schools, and "Inside-Outside" and "Outside-Inside" at others.
Spin Kicks : There are several spinning kicks that involve the rotation of the entire body and head before the kick is released. Spinning kicks include the back pivot kick , spinning hook kick , spinning axe kick, returning kick, 360 turning kick, and a number of other kicks of varying popularity.
Tornado kick/360 kick/Screw kick/windmill kick :The exponent steps forward then spins in the direction of their back leg while raising their knee and jumping to perform a spinning inside crescent kick in midair. the alternate version involve an initial round or crescent kick, while the back foot pivots. rotating the body in a 360 motion, the back foot comes up as a knee and swings across giving the momentum for your attacking leg to do a roundhouse kick or an inside crescent kick.
Jump Kicks :There are also many kicks that involve jumping before their execution. These include jumping front kick , jumping side kick , flying side kick, jumping axe kick, jumping roundhouse , jumping spinning hook kick, jumping spinning roundhouse kick or "shuffle jump kick," jumping (or counter) back kick, and jump spinning side kick. Normally, jumping kicks involve pulling up the back leg to help gain height during the jump and then performing the kick itself with the front leg. About any kick can be put into a Jump, a spin, or a jump-spin. flying kicks, obvious for the name, fly in a forward motion, rather than jumping straight up and down like a jump kick. first, for a flying kick, you must run ( your kicking leg must be last foot to run) and run-jump into the air doing the kick you want. usually, the side peircing kick is preferred as a flying move.